Famous Quotes & Sayings

Liu Cixin Quotes & Sayings

Enjoy the top 100 famous quotes, sayings and quotations by Liu Cixin.

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Liu Cixin Quotes 715039

I've always felt that the greatest and most beautiful stories in the history of humanity were not sung by wandering bards or written by playwrights and novelists, but told by science. The stories of science are far more magnificent, grand, involved, profound, thrilling, strange, terrifying, mysterious, and even emotional, compared to the stories told by literature. Only, these wonderful stories are locked in cold equations that most do not know how to read. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 715608

You know how the joke goes: On the way to the execution ground, a condemned criminal complained that it was going to rain, and the executioner said, 'What have you got to worry about? We're the ones who've got to go back through it! — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1910790

Your lack of fear is based on your ignorance. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 2176307

Should philosophy guide experiments, or should experiments guide philosophy? — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1355261

He stood on the ice, his teeth chattering in the cold, a cold that seemed to come not from the lake water or icy wind, but from a direct transmission from outer space. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 711628

If we lose our human nature, we lose much, but if we lose our bestial nature, we lose everything. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1655616

During research conducted with the neuroscientist Keiko Yamasuki, he discovered that brain activity for thoughts and memories operated on the quantum level rather than on the molecular level as previously believed. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 730687

I know you can't. Because you're too kind. It's very simple. The attacker must first transform themselves into life forms that can survive in a low-dimensional universe. For instance, a four-dimensional species can transform itself into three-dimensional creatures, or a three-dimensional species can transform itself into two-dimensional life. After the entire civilization has entered a lower dimension, they can initiate a dimensional strike against the enemy without concern for the consequences." Cheng — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 690504

The universe is a dark forest. Every civilization is an armed hunter stalking through the trees like a ghost, gently pushing aside branches that block the path and trying to tread without sound. Even breathing is done with care. The hunter has to be careful, because everywhere in the forest are stealthy hunters like him. If he finds other life - another hunter, an angel or a demon, a delicate infant or a tottering old man, a fairy or a demigod - there's only one thing he can do: open fire and eliminate them. In this forest, hell is other people. An eternal threat that any life that exposes its own existence will be swiftly wiped out. This is the picture of cosmic civilization. It's the explanation for the Fermi Paradox. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1531466

The child that was human civilization had opened the door to her home and glanced outside. The endless night terrified her so much that she shuddered against the expansive and profound darkness, and shut the door firmly. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 550204

you told me, "Beihai, you've got a long way to go. I say that because I can still easily understand you, and being understandable to me means that your mind is still too simple, not subtle enough. On the day I can no longer read you or figure you out, but you can easily understand me, that's when you'll finally have grown up." And then I grew up like you said, and you could no longer so easily understand your son. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 659549

Emancipation of human nature inevitably brings with it scientific and technological progress. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1926953

Saving a species of bird or insect is no different from saving humankind. 'All lives are equal' is the basic tenet of Pan-Species Communism. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 556377

Inequality of survival is the worst sort of inequality, and the people and countries left behind will never just sit and wait for death while others have a way out. There — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1397463

Earth civilization had a way to transmit at the level of a Kardashev Type II civilization. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 695006

It was impossible to expect a moral awakening from humankind itself, just like it was impossible to expect humans to lift off the earth by pulling up on their own hair. To achieve moral awakening required a force outside the human race. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 510189

The turbulence was purposeless, but in huge quantities of purposeless turbulence, purpose took shape. The — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 489020

In the shooter hypothesis, a good marksman shoots at a target, creating a hole every ten centimeters. Now suppose the surface of the target is inhabited by intelligent, two-dimensional creatures. Their scientists, after observing the universe, discover a great law: "There exists a hole in the universe every ten centimeters." They have mistaken the result of the marksman's momentary whim for an unalterable law of the universe. The farmer hypothesis, on the other hand, has the flavor of a horror story: Every morning on a turkey farm, the farmer comes to feed the turkeys. A scientist turkey, having observed this pattern to hold without change for almost a year, makes the following discovery: "Every morning at eleven, food arrives." On the morning of Thanksgiving, the scientist announces this law to the other turkeys. But that morning at eleven, food doesn't arrive; instead, the farmer comes and kills the entire flock. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1546188

Although the method is simple, it shows how, mathematically, random brute force can overcome precise logic. It's a numerical approach that uses quantity to derive quality. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1120886

When they passed a maintenance site in the road bed, Einstein stopped next to a worker who was smashing stones and silently observed this boy with torn clothes and dirty face and hands. He asked your father how much the boy earned each day. After asking the boy, he told Einstein: five cents. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1441154

it was not a good idea for the human race as a whole to make contact with extraterrestrials. The impact of such contact on human society would be divisive rather than uniting, and would exacerbate rather than mitigate the conflicts between different cultures. In summary, if contact were to occur, the internal divisions within Earth civilization would be magnified and likely lead to disaster. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1093872

It's a wonder to be alive. If you don't understand that, how can you search for anything deeper? — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1493967

Lao Yang told him that sixty, like sixteen, was the best time in life, an age where the burdens of one's forties and fifties had been laid down, but the slowdown and illness of the seventies and eighties had not yet arrived. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 868209

The past was like a handful of sand you thought you were squeezing tightly, but which had already run out through the cracks between your fingers. Memory was a river that had run dry long ago, leaving only scattered gravel in a lifeless riverbed. He had lived life always looking out for the next thing, and whenever he had gained, he had also lost, leaving him with little in the end. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 484069

Staying alive is not enough to guarantee survival. Development is the best way to ensure survival. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1627183

Mere existence is already the result of incredible luck. Such was the case on Earth in the past, and such has always been the case in this cruel universe. But at some point, humanity began to develop the illusion that they're entitled to life, that life can be taken for granted. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 814463

The classic images Shakespeare, Balzac, and Tolstoy created were born from their mental wombs. But today's practitioners of literacture have lost that creativity. Their minds give birth only to shattered fragments and freaks, whose brief lives are nothing but cryptic spasms devoid of reason. Then they sweep up these fragments into a bag they peddle under the label 'postmodern' or 'deconstructionist' or 'symbolism' or 'irrational. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 2121876

Everything you see before you is the result of poverty. But how are things any better in the wealthy countries? They protect their own environments, but then shift the heavily polluting industries to the poorer nations. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 303386

Evans: We don't know what extraterrestrial civilization is like, but we know humanity. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 100966

And now, the Sun really was melting, its blood seeping into the deadly plane. This was the last sunset. In — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 2004023

Yes. They spread out to cover the entire solar system. We're trapped — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 973606

We are comrades now. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 983658

Let's go drinking and then go back to sleep like good bugs. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 257618

Look at them, the bugs. Humans have used everything in their power to extinguish them: every kind of poison, aerial sprays, introducing and cultivating their natural predators, searching for and destroying their eggs, using genetic modification to sterilize them, burning with fire, drowning with water. Every family has bug spray, every desk has a fly-swatter under it... this long war has been going on for the entire history of human civilization. But the outcome is still in doubt. The bugs have not been eliminated. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 305281

Should could no longer feel grief. She was now like a Geiger counter that had been subjected to too much radiation, no longer capable of giving any reaction, noiselessly displaying a reading of zero. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 323429

Afterwards, the princeps asked the science consul, "Did we destroy a civilization in the microcosmos in this experiment?" "It was at least an intelligent body. Also, Princeps, we destroyed the entire microcosmos. That miniature universe is immense in higher dimensions, and it probably contained more than one intelligence or civilization that never had a chance to express themselves in macro space. Of course, in higher dimensional space at such micro scales, the form that intelligence or civilization may take is beyond our imagination. They're something else entirely. And such destruction has probably occurred many times before." "Oh?" "In the long history of scientific progress, how many protons have been smashed apart in accelerators by physicists? How many neutrons and electrons? Probably no fewer than a hundred million. Every collision was probably the end of the civilizations and intelligences in a microcosmos. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 425454

It's easy to make ideological mistakes in theory. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 478704

qualitative change is only produced by long-term quantitative accumulation. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 516919

It's very interesting: The inside heats up first while the outside remains cold. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 526871

Every day on this planet some species that doesn't draw the attention of humans goes extinct. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 535915

She said, "Your approach is wrong. You're writing an essay rather than creating a literary figure. What a literary character does in ten minutes might be a reflection of ten years' experience. You can't be limited to the plot of a novel - you've got to imagine her entire life, and what actually gets put into words is just the tip of the iceberg." So — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 556831

Wang walked past the three happily playing children and entered the room that Ye had indicated. He paused in front of the door, seized by a strange feeling. It was as if he had returned to his dream-filled youth. From the depths of his memory arose a tingling sadness, fragile and pure like morning dew, tinged with a rosy hue. Gently, — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 602161

Science fiction is a literature that belongs to all humankind. It portrays events of interest to all of humanity, and thus science fiction should be the literary genre most accessible to readers of different nations. Science fiction often describes a day when humanity will form a harmonious whole, and I believe the arrival of such a day need not wait for the appearance of extraterrestrials. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 618564

What Ye disliked most was seeing the waves that slowly crawled across the display, a visual record of the meaningless noise Red Coast picked up from space. Ye felt this interminable wave was an abstract view of the universe: one end connected to the endless past, the other to the endless future, and in the middle only the ups and downs of random chance - without life, without pattern, the peaks and valleys at different heights like uneven grains of sand, the whole curve like a one-dimensional desert made of all the grains of sand lined up in a row, lonely, desolate, so long that it was intolerable. You could follow it and go forward or backward as long as you liked, but you'd never find the end. On — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 621210

The fish responsible for drying the sea are not here. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 645212

Unlike other human religions, they worshipped something that truly existed. Also unlike other human religions, it was the Lord who was in crisis, and the duty of salvation fell on the shoulders of the believer. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 648543

when humans are lost in space, it takes only five minutes to reach totalitarianism. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 652867

Though the person could not see the potential lover's face or figure, the knowledge that the other person existed somewhere in the distance created lovely fantasies about the potential lover that spread like wildfire. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 662756

The universe is a hollow sphere floating in the middle of a sea of fire. There are numerous tiny holes in the surface of the sphere, as well as a large one. The light from the sea of flames shines through these holes. The tiny ones are stars, and the large one is the sun. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 695589

One night, Ye was working the night shift. This was the loneliest time. In the deep silence of midnight, the universe revealed itself to its listeners as a vast desolation. What Ye disliked most was seeing the waves that slowly crawled across the display, a visual record of the meaningless noise Red Coast picked up from space. Ye felt this interminable wave was an abstract view of the universe: one end connected to the endless past, the other to the endless future, and in the middle only the ups and downs of random chance - without life, without pattern, the peaks and valleys at different heights like uneven grains of sand, the whole curve like a one-dimensional desert made of all the grains of sand lined up in a row, lonely, desolate, so long that it was intolerable. You could follow it and go forward or backward as long as you liked, but you'd never find the end. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 711010

Ye accepted Yang's proposal mainly out of gratitude. If he hadn't brought her into this safe haven in her most perilous moment, she would probably no longer be alive. Yang was a talented man, cultured and with good taste. She didn't find him unpleasant, but her heart was like ashes from which the flame of love could no longer be lit. As she pondered human nature, Ye was faced with an ultimate loss of purpose and sank into another spiritual crisis. She had once been an idealist who needed to give all her talent to a great goal, but now she realized that all that she had done was meaningless, and the future could not have any meaningful pursuits, either. As this mental state persisted, she gradually felt more and more alienated from the world. She didn't belong. The sense of wandering in the spiritual wilderness tormented her. After she made a home with Yang, her soul became homeless. One — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 720312

No,no.Don't say where we are!Once we know where we are,then the world becomes as narrow as a map.When we don't know,the world feels unlimited. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 800899

One thing in particular that struck him was the total absence of landscapes, the mark of a mature aesthetic sensibility: hanging landscape paintings in a house situated in the Garden of Eden would be as pointless as pouring a bucket of water into the ocean. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 834148

The brevity of a human lifespan tormented them as never before, and their hearts soared above the vault of time to join with their descendants and plunge into blood and fire in the icy cold of space, the eventual meeting place for the souls of all soldiers. * — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 860211

I don't have much to say except a warning. Life reached an evolutionary milestone when it climbed onto land from the ocean, but those first fish that climbed onto land ceased to be fish. Similarly, when humans truly enter space and are freed from the Earth, they cease to be human. So, to all of you I say this: When you think about heading into outer space without looking back, please reconsider. The cost you must pay is far greater than you could imagine. * — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 863979

Life reached an evolutionary milestone when it climbed onto land from the ocean, but those first fish that climbed onto land ceased to be fish. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 951215

The universe had once been bright, too. For a short time after the big bang, all matter existed in the form of light, and only after the universe turned to burnt ash did heavier elements precipitate out of the darkness and form planets and life. Darkness was the mother of life and of civilization. On Earth, an avalanche of curses and abuse rolled out into space toward Blue Space and Bronze Age, but the two ships made no reply. They cut off all contact with the Solar System, for to those two worlds, the Earth was already dead. The two dark ships became one with the darkness, separated by the Solar System and drifting further apart. Carrying with them the entirety of human thoughts and memories, and embracing all of the Earth's glory and dreams, they quietly disappeared into the eternal night. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 951450

To effectively contain a civilization's development and disarm it across such a long span of time, there is only one way: kill its science. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1019675

In China, any idea that dared to take flight would only crash back to the ground. The gravity of reality is too strong. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1027103

The more transparent something was, the more mysterious it seemed. The universe itself was transparent; as long as you were sufficiently sharp-eyed, you could see as far as you liked. But the farther you looked, the more mysterious it became. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1040951

Wind? 'Why, land is the only thing in the world worth workin' for, worth fightin' for, worth dyin' for, because it's the only thing that lasts.'" Yifan said, "The Solar System humans spilled their last drop of blood to stay with their land - well, save for two drops: you and AA. But what was the point? They didn't last, and neither did their land. Hundreds of millions of years have passed in the great universe, and do you think anyone still remembers them? This obsession with home and land, this permanent adolescence where you're no longer children but are afraid to leave home - this is the fundamental reason your race was annihilated. I am sorry if I've offended you, but it's the truth." Cheng — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1042035

strongly against nuclear weapons. She knew this was a power that should belong only to the stars. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1121126

In the eternal night of the Orion Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy, two civilization had swept through like two shooting stars, and the universe had remembered their light. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1184175

In this world, can everyone be dehydrated and rehydrated? — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1223135

A bottomless abyss exists in every inch — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1226271

The most surprising aspect of the Earth-Trisolaris Movement was that so many people had abandoned all hope in human civilization, hated and were willing to betray their own species, and even cherished as their highest ideal the elimination of the entire human race, including themselves and their children. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1241434

The entire empire has sunk into a quagmire of extravagance from which they cannot extricate themselves. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1249993

Everyone likes to reminisce, but not one wants to listen, and everyone feels annoyed when someone else tells a story. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1255262

Why not? Of the four possible sites, this has the best electromagnetic environment." "What about the human environment? Comrades, don't just focus on the technical side. Look at how poor this place is. The poorer a village, the craftier the people. Do you understand? If the observatory were located here, there would be trouble between the scientists and the locals. I can imagine the peasants thinking of the astronomy complex as a juicy piece of meat that they can take bites from." This site was indeed not approved, and the reason was just what the task force leader had said. * — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1263720

Life and the world were perhaps ugly, but at the limits of the micro and macro scales, everything was harmonious and beautiful. The — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1290735

Now you know the goal of this game: to use our intellect and understanding to analyze all phenomena until we can know the pattern of the sun's movement. The survival of civilization depends on it. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1346881

In his mind, the city, as it awoke from its slumber, seemed to be built on quicksand. The stability was illusory. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1366772

the thoughts she could not voice dissolved into her blood, where they would stay with her for the rest of her life. After — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1376392

In one remote corner of the vast sea of information on the Internet, there was a remote corner, and in a remote corner of that remote corner, and then in a remote corner of a remote corner of a remote corner of that remote corner - that is, in the very depths of the most remote corner of all - a virtual world came back to life. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1402390

The only way to escape this fate was to mate with a member of the opposite sex. When that happened, the organic material making up their bodies would meld into one. Two-thirds of the material would then become fuel to power the biochemical reaction that would completely renew the cells in the remaining one-third and create a new body. Then this body would divide into three to five tiny new lives: their children. They would inherit some of the memories of their parents, continue their lives, and begin the cycle of life anew. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1436524

She was like a star, always so distant. Even the light she shone on me was always cold. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1441952

I've got to learn how to live. If I can't swing that, it'll be a damn shame," Luo — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1471104

Can the fundamental nature of matter really be lawlessness? Can the stability and order of the world be but a temporary dynamic equilibrium achieved in a corner of the universe, a short-lived eddy in a chaotic current? — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1507411

In the face of madness, rationality was powerless. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1518104

Every era puts invisible shackles on those who have lived through it, and I can only dance in my chains. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1527990

The fate of the entire human race was now tied to these slender fingers. Without hesitation, Ye pressed the button. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1571970

The best translations into English do not, in fact, read as if they were originally written in English. The English words are arranged in such a way that the reader sees a glimpse of another culture's patterns of thinking, hears an echo of another language's rhythms and cadences, and feels a tremor of another people's gestures and movements. I — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1582567

Cheng Xin now recalled the strange feeling she had experienced each time she had looked at Van Gogh's painting. Everything else in the painting - the trees that seemed to be on fire, and the village and mountains at night - showed perspective and depth, but the starry sky above had no three-dimensionality at all, like a painting hanging in space. Because the starry night was two-dimensional. How could Van Gogh have painted such a thing in 1889? Did he, having suffered a second breakdown, truly leap across five centuries — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1584034

Existence is the premise for everything else. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1584890

But for this mass struggle session, the victims were the reactionary bourgeois academic authorities. These were the enemies of every faction, and they had no choice but to endure cruel attacks from every side. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1642980

Science and technology were the only keys to opening the door to the future, and people approached science with the faith and sincerity of elementary school students. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1659180

Some call them doomsday ships. These lightspeed ships have no destination at all. They turn their curvature engines to maximum and accelerate like crazy, infinitely approaching the speed of light. Their goal is to leap across time using relativity until they reach the heat death of the universe. By their calculations, ten years within their frame of reference would equal fifty billion years in ours. As a matter of fact, you don't even need to plan for it. If some malfunction occurs after a ship has accelerated to lightspeed, preventing the ship from decelerating, then you'd also reach the end of the universe within your lifetime. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1764395

Whatever they were dealing with was too important for them to care about keeping up appearances. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1812535

Of course," said Guan Yifan. "The great universe isn't going to fail to collapse because it misses five kilograms." He had another thought that he did not voice: Perhaps the great universe really would fail to collapse because it lacked a single atom's mass. The precision of Nature can sometimes exceed the imagination. For instance, life itself required the precise collaboration of various universal constants within a billion-billionth of a certain range. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1820921

On the day of the universe's Last Judgment, two humans and a robot belonging to the Earth and Trisolaran civilizations embraced each other in ecstasy. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1825415

As soon as we increase the dimensionality of this proton, it will become very small. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1828455

But one always awoke from a dream, just like the sun - which, though it would rise again, brought no fresh hope. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1835262

These days, they use so much pesticide that when I feed the children, I have to soak the vegetables for at least two hours. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1837626

In her life, moments of happiness were only gaps between mass catastrophes. She was now afraid of happiness. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1877238

I need a dual-vector foil for cleansing. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1877927

A woman should be like water, able to flow over and around anything. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 1968390

Some of the fragments bore clear scratches, reminding him that those things had indeed taken place. The details were vivid, but the feelings had vanished without a trace. The past was like a handful of sand you thought you were squeezing tightly, but which had already run out through the cracks between your fingers. Memory was a river that had run dry long ago, leaving only scattered gravel in a lifeless riverbed. He had lived life always looking out for the next thing, and whenever he had gained, he had also lost, leaving him with little in the end. He — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 2037417

When it was finally quiet again, she was no longer capable of making any sound. She stared at her father's lifeless body, and the thoughts she could not voice dissolved into her blood, where they would stay with her for the rest of her life. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 2115744

Life needed smoothness, but it also needed direction. One could not always be returning to the point of origin. — Liu Cixin

Liu Cixin Quotes 2260146

The key is to set up some rules: which combinations of motion vectors are "healthy" and "beneficial," and which combinations are "detrimental" and "harmful." The former receive a survival advantage while the latter are disfavored. — Liu Cixin